Ancient Languages

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Hebrew Old Testament

Scholars mainly use the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) which is based on the Leningrad Codex (aka St Petersburg Codex). When this text was digitised by the Westminster Hebrew Institute, they took the opportunity to 'correct' the BHS to follow the Leningrad codex more faithfully. The BHS is important for the critical apparatus, though it is now being supplanted by the Quinta which is also based on the Leningrad Codex. The Aleppo Codex is older and often considered superior (though there are not many differences with the Leningrad Codex), but unfortunately almost all the Pentateuch has been lost.


Aleppo Codex:

Facsimile of original. Downloadable text.

Searchable text: unpointed, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English

Leningrad Codex (Westminster ed):

Facsimile of original. Downloadable text, Unicode Leningrad Codex

Searchable text: pointed, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English Massoretic structure

Dead Sea Scrolls:


Digital Dead Sea Scrolls

Audio Bible

audio Bible read in Hebrew

Greek New Testament

Thousands of ancient copies of the New Testament have survived. This enviable situation (which is unparalleled in other ancient literature) has enabled scholars to study copying errors in detail. Three main types of text have resulted from these studies, though their differences are minor.

The Textus Receptus is based on the first edition of the Greek text prepared by Erasmus, before the earliest manuscripts had been discovered. It forms the basis of the earliest English Bibles, notably the King James Bible. It is still used by many because it contains the long reading of 1 John 5.7 which is first found in a Greek manuscript penned a short time before Erasmus published his edition - it was said to have been prepared especially for this purpose!

Most scholars use the text of Nestle & Aland which gives preference to the oldest manuscripts (mainly Vaticanus B and Sinaiticus) and to the papyri from the first three centuries. Decisions about which reading was original is based on which one was most likely to cause later scribes to produce the others. This is published by the American Bible Society ("NA27" - ie Nestle-Aland, 27th ed.) & the United Bible Society (UBS4). Recent (NA26, NA27, UBS3, UBS4) editions have virtually identical texts and differ only in their critical apparatus, but NA28 (rationale, text) incorporates some new readings from the Editio Critica Maior. This text is basically similar to earlier editions by Westcott & Hort, Tischendorf and Weiss, who all followed broadly similar principles.

Some scholars use the Majority Text which gives more-or-less equal weight to a much wider number of manuscripts up to about 1500 AD. Decisions about which reading was original is based mainly on the largest number of manuscripts which contain that reading.


English Guide to the Various Readings of the Greek New Testament

Readings of Eds, not MSS

Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts

theory and history of textual criticism


Original Manuscripts:

Major Codexes: Query&book=26&inputControl=420&lid=de&side=r&zoomSlider=0 Sinaiticus, Vaticanus B (pseudo-facsimile), Bezae, Alexandrinus.

Papyri, minuscules etc: (complete list) (images & discussion of many) (more images)

Editions from multiple manuscripts:

Textus Receptus unaccented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, linked to parallel English

Tischendorf's 8th Ed unaccented, searchable, with parallel English

Westcott & Hort: unaccented with NA27 variants, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with linked parallel English accented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English accented, searchable, linked to full L&S lexicon

NA27/UBS3 unaccented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar accented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar

NA28 accented (and perhaps more)

Majority Text unaccented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English

Variants NA26 with variants marked 5 parallel eds textual commentary list of variants

(all of the above) major eds with variants, linked to grammar and very good lexicons + ECF allusions - scholar's heaven!


Translation of the Book of Acts in Codex Bezae

marked with differences to TR


Codex Sinaiticus

photos &text

Codex Sinaiticus - See The Manuscript | Genesis |

facsimile, text & search of Codex Sinaiticus

Critical Apparatus

The International Greek New Testament Project

A comprehensive critical apparatus of the NT, starting with Luke and John

Digital Nestle-Aland

Comprehensive critical aparatus of the NT starting with Jude and continuing with other epistles

NT Virtual Manuscript Room

manuscripts with the invitation to get involved in the project

TC Ebind Index

1 John 5 | Manuscript Comparator by Open Scriptures

show two Greek texts side by side with lexical & morphology helps

NT.VMR read

Greek NT MSS at Munster, in virtual library

Liste Handschriften

list of 880 Greek NT MSS at Munster + external links

Audio Bible

Let’s Read Greek

collection and evaluation of different audio readings


NT Greek Manuscripts App (iPhone/iPad) | Evangelical Textual Criticism

New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room

"This site is devoted to the study of Greek New Testament manuscripts."

Other Ancient Translations (with English)

OT Greek (Septuagint, LXX)

Original manuscripts: Facsimiles (ID="any" Password = "any")

Rahlf's Text: unaccented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English

Ecclesiastical Greek: download Greek-English interlinear as pdfs

Translation by Brenton: Revised

NETS - New English Translation of the Septuagint English PDFs

Downloadable Word doc: Rahlf's, accented & Tov's parallels with Hebrew

OT Aramaic Paraphrase (Targums)

All Targums in Aramaic: pointed or translitterated

'Targum 'Onkelos

'Targum 'Jonathan

'Targum 'Ruth

'Targum 'Canticles

Pentateuch trans by Etheridge: Ps-Jonathan & Onkelos: English only

Psalms & Megillot trans by E M Cook and others: English only

Syriac Translation (Peshitta)

OT: transliterated or unpointed, linked to lexicon Testamentum (7a1).pdf Facsimile of Codex Ambrosianus B. 21

'NT: unpointed, searchable, with parallel English

pointed with interlinear English

NT trans by Murdoch: English with parallel Syriac English only

NT trans by Etheridge: English only

OT trans by Lamsa: English only

OT & NT Latin Translation (Old Latin & Vulgate)

Old Latin (Vetus Latina) - pre-Vulgate Latin Bible fragments. (Tyndale access via Cambridge University)

Vulgate: searchable, with parallel English proximity searches, Vulgate

More ancient translations

Coptic: Sahidic Coptic NT (parallel with Greek) also cheap ePrinting. Boharic Copic cheap ePrinting.

Samaritan: Samaritan Pentateuch in Hebrew Squarescript (a long download of the full text)

Armenian: 5th C 'Zohrab Bible' cheap ePrinting, NT text

Old Slavonic: Codex Marianus

Gothic: NT

Many texts are available in commercial software


Summary of available electronic resources for Bible manuscripts

Tov's--for more details.

Concordance of the Sahidic New Testament | Alin Suciu

The Ancient Versions of Scripture

articles on ancient translations of Heb. OT