- 1 Hebrew Old Testament
- 2 Greek New Testament
- 3 Other Ancient Translations (with English)
Hebrew Old Testament
Scholars mainly use the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) which is based on the Leningrad Codex (aka St Petersburg Codex). When this text was digitised by the Westminster Hebrew Institute, they took the opportunity to 'correct' the BHS to follow the Leningrad codex more faithfully. The BHS is important for the critical apparatus, though it is now being supplanted by the Quinta which is also based on the Leningrad Codex. The Aleppo Codex is older and often considered superior (though there are not many differences with the Leningrad Codex), but unfortunately almost all the Pentateuch has been lost.
Searchable text: unpointed, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English
Leningrad Codex (Westminster ed):
Dead Sea Scrolls:
Digital Dead Sea Scrolls
audio Bible read in Hebrew
Greek New Testament
Thousands of ancient copies of the New Testament have survived. This enviable situation (which is unparalleled in other ancient literature) has enabled scholars to study copying errors in detail. Three main types of text have resulted from these studies, though their differences are minor.
The Textus Receptus is based on the first edition of the Greek text prepared by Erasmus, before the earliest manuscripts had been discovered. It forms the basis of the earliest English Bibles, notably the King James Bible. It is still used by many because it contains the long reading of 1 John 5.7 which is first found in a Greek manuscript penned a short time before Erasmus published his edition - it was said to have been prepared especially for this purpose!
Most scholars use the text of Nestle & Aland which gives preference to the oldest manuscripts (mainly Vaticanus B and Sinaiticus) and to the papyri from the first three centuries. Decisions about which reading was original is based on which one was most likely to cause later scribes to produce the others. This is published by the American Bible Society ("NA27" - ie Nestle-Aland, 27th ed.) & the United Bible Society (UBS4). Recent (NA26, NA27, UBS3, UBS4) editions have virtually identical texts and differ only in their critical apparatus, but NA28 (rationale, text) incorporates some new readings from the Editio Critica Maior. This text is basically similar to earlier editions by Westcott & Hort, Tischendorf and Weiss, who all followed broadly similar principles.
Some scholars use the Majority Text which gives more-or-less equal weight to a much wider number of manuscripts up to about 1500 AD. Decisions about which reading was original is based mainly on the largest number of manuscripts which contain that reading.
Readings of Eds, not MSS
theory and history of textual criticism
Major Codexes: Query&book=26&inputControl=420&lid=de&side=r&zoomSlider=0 Sinaiticus, Vaticanus B (pseudo-facsimile), Bezae, Alexandrinus.
Editions from multiple manuscripts:
Tischendorf's 8th Ed unaccented, searchable, with parallel English
Westcott & Hort: unaccented with NA27 variants, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with linked parallel English accented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English accented, searchable, linked to full L&S lexicon
(all of the above) major eds with variants, linked to grammar and very good lexicons + ECF allusions - scholar's heaven!
marked with differences to TR
facsimile, text & search of Codex Sinaiticus
A comprehensive critical apparatus of the NT, starting with Luke and John
Comprehensive critical aparatus of the NT starting with Jude and continuing with other epistles
manuscripts with the invitation to get involved in the project
show two Greek texts side by side with lexical & morphology helps
Greek NT MSS at Munster, in virtual library
list of 880 Greek NT MSS at Munster + external links
collection and evaluation of different audio readings
"This site is devoted to the study of Greek New Testament manuscripts."
Other Ancient Translations (with English)
OT Greek (Septuagint, LXX)
Original manuscripts: Facsimiles (ID="any" Password = "any")
Ecclesiastical Greek: download Greek-English interlinear as pdfs
Translation by Brenton: Revised
NETS - New English Translation of the Septuagint English PDFs
Downloadable Word doc: Rahlf's, accented & Tov's parallels with Hebrew
OT Aramaic Paraphrase (Targums)
All Targums in Aramaic: pointed or translitterated
Pentateuch trans by Etheridge: Ps-Jonathan & Onkelos: English only
Psalms & Megillot trans by E M Cook and others: English only
Syriac Translation (Peshitta)
NT trans by Etheridge: English only
OT trans by Lamsa: English only
OT & NT Latin Translation (Old Latin & Vulgate)
Old Latin (Vetus Latina) - pre-Vulgate Latin Bible fragments. (Tyndale access via Cambridge University)
More ancient translations
Samaritan: Samaritan Pentateuch in Hebrew Squarescript (a long download of the full text)
Old Slavonic: Codex Marianus
Many texts are available in commercial software
Tov's--for more details.
articles on ancient translations of Heb. OT