Language Resources

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Hebrew & Aramaic - Biblical & Classical

Dictionaries and Lexicons

A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature

(Luzac/Putnam, 1903) - by Marcus Jastrow


Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament

(1906) - by H.W.F. Gesenius


Bible Study Tools Lexicon

searchable Brown-Driver-Briggs database, keyed to Strong's, KJV and ASV


Lexicons - Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius for OT, Thayer's for NT- from bible.crosswalk.com:

2LetterLookup

Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian


United Bible Societies - SDBH

online Biblical Hebrew lexicon with semantic domain information


Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project

lexicon, bibliography and resources


Grammars

Hebrew for Christians Grammar Pages

a fairly complete and well organised manual

Books on Grammar:

A Compendium of Hebrew Grammar (McGlashan, 1847) - by W. De Burgh

A Grammar of the Hebrew Language (3rd ed.; Taylor and Walton, 1891) - by H. Hurwitz

A Hebrew Grammar with Exercises Selected from the Bible  (Kegan Paul, 1881) - by A. Ballin

A Hebrew Primer  (Bagster, 1878) - by C. Ball

A New Practical Hebrew Grammar  (Leypoldt and Holt, 1868) - by S. Deutsch

Accidence of Hebrew Grammar  (Herder, 1918) - by H. Coffey

An Introductory Hebrew Grammar  (17th ed.; T&T Clark, 1901) - by A.B. Davidson

Ausf?hrliches grammatisch-kritisches Lehrgeb?ude der hebr?ischen Sprache  (Vogel, 1817) - by W. Gesenius

Elements of Hebrew by an Inductive Method  (7th ed.; American Publication Society of Hebrew, 1886) - by W. Harper

Ewald’s Introductory Hebrew Grammar  (trans. F. Smith; 3rd ed.; Asher, 1870) - by H. Ewald

Exercises in Hebrew Grammar  (Allen, Morrill, and Wardwell, 1847) - by H. Hackett

"Gesenius'+Hebrew+Grammar"&as_brr=1&ei=zbZ-SMWlMJXAigGdxeCgBg Gesenius’s Hebrew Grammar  (17th ed.; Appleton, 1875) - by W.H.F. Gesenius, rev. by E. R?diger, trans. T. J. Conant

Hebrew Grammar  (University of Missouri, 1877) - by Alexander Meyrowitz

Introductory Hebrew Method and Manual  (Scribner, 1896) - by W. Harper

Manual of Hebrew Grammar  (Luzac, 1898) - by J.D. Wijnkoop, trans. C. van den Biesen

Outlines of Hebrew Grammar  (Brockhaus, 1877) - by G. Bickell

Books on Nouns:

Basic Grammar of Hebrew Nouns - by Ralph W. Klein

Books on Syntax

Introductory Hebrew Grammar: Hebrew Syntax (2nd ed.; T&T Clark, 1896) - by A.B. Davidson(3rd ed.; T&T Clark, 1902) 

Syntax of the Hebrew Language of the Old Testament  (8th ed.; T&T Clark, 1891) - by H. Ewald

Books on Verbs

How to Analyze Every Verb in Hebrew - by Ralph W. Klein


Discussion groups

B-Hebrew

Forum


Miscellaneous

Hebrew Verb Morphology

tool to create forms of Hebrew verbs


Scholars' Gateway

creating a parsing engine for Hebrew and various other projects


Greek - Classical, Septuagint & New Testament

Grammar

A Grammar of Old Testament Greek According to the Septuagint

Vol. 1, Introduction, Orthography, and Accidence 

- by Henry St. John Thackeray (Cambridge University Pres, 1909)


Differences between Classical and Hellenistic Greek

Lexicons

2LetterLookup

Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian


A Lexicon of Symmachus' Special Vocabulary in His Translation of the Psalms 

- by Johan Lust, TC 5 (2000); full text


Learning Greek

Biblical Greek: Notes to Croy

Lessons and Charts for NT Greek


Hellenistic Greek lessons


Information Technology

CCAT Transliteration Standard for Hebrew and Greek


Professional Organizations

International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies

Discussion group

B-Greek

- e-mail discussion group


Latin

Learning Latin

Latin Dictionary & Grammar Aids


Digital Latin Lexicon 

free program to download



Aramaic

Dictionaries and Lexicons

A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature

(Luzac/Putnam, 1903) - by Marcus Jastrow





Other Languages

Akkadian

2LetterLookup

Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian


Lexica

The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago

Vol. 1, A, Part 1 (Oriental Institute, 1964)

Vol. 1, A, Part 2 (Oriental Institute, 1968)

Vol. 2, B (Oriental Institute, 1965)

Vol. 3, D (Oriental Institute, 1959)

Vol. 4, E (Oriental Institute, 1958)

Vol. 5, G  (Oriental Institute, 1956)

Vol. 6, H [Het] (Oriental Institute, 1958)

Vol. 7, I/J (Oriental Institute, 1960)

Vol. 8, K (Oriental Institute, 1971)

Vol. 9, L (Oriental Institute, 1973)

Vol. 10, M, part 1  (Oriental Institute, 1977)

Vol. 11, N, part 1  (Oriental Institute, 1980)

Vol. 12, P (Oriental Institute, 2005)

Vol. 13, Q  (Oriental Institute, 1982)

Vol. 14, R  (Oriental Institute, 1999)

Vol. 15, S  (Oriental Institute, 1984)

Vol. 16, S [Tsade]  (Oriental Institute, 1962)

Vol. 17, S [Shin], part 1  (Oriental Institute, 1989)

Vol. 17, S [Shin], part 2  (Oriental Institute, 1992)

Vol. 17, S [Shin], part 3  (Oriental Institute, 1992)

Vol. 18, T  (Oriental Institute, 2006)

Vol. 19, T [Tet] (Oriental Institute, 2006)

Vol. 21, Z (Oriental Institute, 1961)


Grammar

Articles and Essays

Word order variation of the verbal sentences in Amqi Akkadian

- by J P van der Westhuizen, Journal of Semitics 6/2 (1994)



Sumerian

Lexicography

Sumerian Lexicon

- compiled by John A. Halloran



History

Map of Sumerian Neolithic and Chalcolithic Archaeological Sites 

- by John A. Halloran


The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process 

- by John A. Halloran


Symbolic Counting Tokens from the Early Near East 

- by John A. Halloran; includes photographs


Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative  (Berlin mirror)


Sumerian Language Page

- maintained by John A. Halloran



Ugaritic

Grammar

13/Dobrusin13.pdf The Third Masculine Plural of the Prefixed Form of the Verb in Ugaritic 

- by Deborah L. Dobrusin, Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 13 (1981) 5–14


Introduction to Ugaritic Grammar

- an online course



Syriac

Lexicon

2LetterLookup

Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian




Translation Projects

The New English Annotated Translation of the Syriac Bible

- by Konrad D. Jenner, Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies 2.2 (1999)


Coptic

Lexicon

2LetterLookup

Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian


Coptic dictionary | search

amalgamation of Coptioc dictionaries, searchable






Arabic

Lexicon

2LetterLookup

Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian


Arabic-English Lexicon by Edward William Lane, ?, root A

Perseus' Lexicon in searchable text form and Unicode Arabic






Miscellanious

Other portals

Northwest Semitic Links

+ + + Fachverbindungen ins Internet + + + collected by Dr. Reinhard G. Lehmann. Forschungsstelle f?r Althebr?ische Sprache und Epigraphik / Research Unit on Ancient Hebrew & Epigraphy, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz


 


Pages of Links

iTanakh.org by R. Christopher Heard

LixiCity - for a wide variety of ancient languages